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Find More Articles By Myers

The USSR was created by atheistic Jews, but Stalin overthrew them.

By Peter Myers


Introduction by Israel Shamir


The question of Jewish participation in the Russian Revolution brought many responses; one of them is this lengthy and thorough one, by our friend Peter Myers. His view is heavily influenced by Solzhenitsyn; much is based on dated material. Peter Myers accepts Jewish boasting for a real thing; but Jewish bragging should be taken with a grain of salt. He insists that Lenin was Jewish; not very likely for a man who expelled the Jewish Bund from the party (“otherwise Jews will ride on our backs”) and demanded to “treat the Jews with an iron rod, transferring them to the front, not letting them into governmental agencies (except in insignificant percentages, in particularly exceptional circumstances, under class control).

For a Russian, this material is quite familiar, for this discussion went on since 1920, and we are not going to see the end of it. A few months ago, in Moscow a book called Russia and Jews was published by AZ (ISBN 978-5-903488- 01-8) with my epilogue; this is mainly a reprint of articles written by anti-Communist Russian Jews in the West in 1921-22. They bewailed this Jewish participation and the revolution, saying: “The Jews under the Soviets are doomed to degradation and poverty… The cities of Russia will become ruins under the Bolsheviks, and Jews will suffer enormously”. But things went different way: Russian Jews are well educated, not particularly poor; more assimilated than anywhere else, less interested in money-making and even less arrogant than their brethren in the West. Russia flourished in the Soviet time, and the doomsayers failed.

The historical narrative of Revolution regarding Jews had been heavily revised by Kozhinov, Panarin, Kara-Murza, three modern Russian historians. All of them were aware of Jewish participation in the revolution; none considered it a totally beneficial phenomenon; none considered the Jewish factor to be decisive. For them, the October revolution was the counter-revolution, brought forth by the Russian people to undo the Masonic February revolution. While February revolution was a pro-Western one, October revolution was a true autochthon movement. The Jews had an impact, but it was a passing one. Likewise, Jews were prominent in 1991 revolution, and six out of seven oligarchs were Jewish. But today, sixteen years later, there are no (or not many) Jews at the top. The Russians can manage this thing – as opposed to the US , where the elites are heavily Jewish without any communist revolution.

Communism is not only “the Jewish idea” – this is the foremost anti-Jewish idea, because communism removes the influence of capital, of money, of mammon, and without it, the Jews have no advantage over the natives and are easily assimilated. Indeed, with fall of Communism, Jewish influence grew rapidly. But this is a separate subject.




The USSR was created by atheistic Jews, but Stalin overthrew them.

By Peter Myers


The membership of the Politburo on 22 March 1921 after the 10th Party Congress was: Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Stalin, and Kamenev.

These details are from Leonard Schapiro’s book The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1960, Eyre & Spottiswoode, London ), p. 606. Quotes from this book are provided below.

3 of the 5 members of the Politburo were Jewish. Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry. Stalin was the only non-Jew. When Lenin died, the USSR was run by a triumvirate - Kamenev, Zinoviev & Stalin. Of these, Stalin was the only non-Jew.

Bertrand Russell attested the Jewish role in creating Bolshevism, a letter he wrote in 1920 just after visiting the USSR . In the paperback The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (George Allen & Unwin, London 1975), it's on pp. 354-5.

{p. 354) To Ottoline Morell

Hotel Continental Stockholm 25th June 1920

Dearest O

... the time in Russia was infinitely painful to me, in spite of being one of the most interesting things I have ever done. Bolshevism is a close tyrannical bureaucracy, with a spy system more elaborate and terrible than the Tsar's, and an aristocracy as insolent and unfeeling, composed of Americanised Jews. No vestige of liberty remains, in thought or speech or action. ...

{endquote} http://users. cyberone. russell.html

Stuart Kahan wrote in his book The Wolf of the Kremlin, a biography of his uncle Lazar Kaganovich:

{p. 81} After all, wasn't the revolution prepared and fashioned by Jews? Both of Karl Marx's grandfathers were rabbis, and Lenin's grandfather was also Jewish. And wasn't Yakov Sverdlov, the first chief of state, a Jew, as was Trotsky himself? But most people believed the Jews could be dealt with, as they always had been dealt with before.

That Trotsky, unquestionably the most outstanding man among the Bolsheviks, was a Jew did not seem an insuperable obstacle in a party in which the percentage of Jews, 52 percent, was rather high compared to the percentage of Jews (1.8 per cent) in the total population.

Lazar would have to keep a close eye on this. Would the people accept the revolution orchestrated by the Jews, or would they accept only one aspect and discard the other?

{endquote} http://users. cyberone. kaganovich. html

Not that ALL Communists were Jews. But Communism was a Jewish idea, and the leaders in the early years of the USSR were mainly Jewish; the non-Jews were initially less important.

The same applied in the creation of Christianity. Its early leaders were Jewish; it was divided into a “Jewish” faction, led by James, and a “Hellenistic” faction, led by Paul. In the Stalin-Trotsky split, the Trotskyists were the “Jewish” faction.

Stalin’s opportunity to take over arose because (1) Lenin died (2) Kamenev and Zinoviev feared Trotsky, even though all three were Jewish, and allied with Stalin (the junior member of the three) against him.

Kamenev and Zinoviev later joined Trotsky’s “Opposition” grouping. This marked the coalescence of the anti-Stalin Communists around Trotsky as leader. I use the word “Trotskyist” in this generic sense, not merely of those who are official members of Trotskyist sects.

Many Jewish communists initially stayed with the Stalin camp, because it was running the USSR, and before World War II Jews had many leading positions, e.g. as ambassadors and in the Cheka.

But over the years, more and more swung over to the anti-Stalin camp. Events which led to this included:

• Stalin’s Purges of mid 1930s were aimed at weeding out closet Trotskyists
• Stalin’s alliance with Hitler (it was the last straw for Arthur Koestler)
• The USSR’s rehabilitation of Russian tradition during World War II, to
enlist patriotic feelings
• The Jewish lobby overplayed its hand towards the end of World War II, promoting a plan for a Jewish republic in the Crimea. It would be part of the USSR , but have strong ties to American Jews and thus somewhat independent. Stalin later turned against its sponsors

• The creation of Israel in 1946 provided Jews with a rival centre of loyalty

• The Doctors Plot of 1953 raised Jewish subversion as an issue

• Jews overwhelmingly sided with Israel in the 1967 and 1973 Middle-East wars

• Subsequently, Jewish ties to Israel and the US made them appear untrustworthy; as a result, they were kept out of sensitive positions, and reacted by emigrating from the USSR .

Trotsky, in his article Thermidor and Anti-Semitism, noted that Stalin was depicting the Opposition as a Jewish camp:

Written February 22, 1937
 From The New International, May 1941
Transcribed for the Trotsky Internet Archive by Matt Siegfried in 1999

http://www.marxists .org/archive/ trotsky/works/ 1938/1938- th.htm

{quote} Between 1923 and 1926, when Stalin, with Zinoviev and Kamenev, was still a member of the "Troika," the play on the strings of anti-Semitism bore a very cautious and masked character. Especially schooled orators (Stalin already then led an underhanded struggle against his associates) said that the followers of Trotsky are petty bourgeois from "small towns" without defining their race. Actually that was untrue. The percentage of Jewish intellectuals in the Opposition was in no case any greater than that in the party and in the bureaucracy. It is sufficient to name the leaders of the Opposition for the years 1923-25. I. N. Smirnov, Serebryakov, Rakovsky, Piatakov, Preobrazhensky, Krestinsky, Muralov, Beloborodov, Mrachkovsky, V. Yakovlev, Sapronov, V. M. Smirnov, Ishtchenko - fully indigenous Russians. Radek at the time was only half-sympathetic. But, as in the trials of the grafters and other scoundrels, so at the time of the expulsions of the Opposition from the party, the bureaucracy purposely emphasized the names of Jewish members of casual and secondary importance. This was quite openly discussed in the party, and, back in 1925, the Opposition saw in this situation the unmistakable symptom of the decay of the ruling clique.

After Zinoviev and Kamenev joined the Opposition the situation changed radically for the worse. At this point there opened wide a perfect chance to say to the workers that at the head of the Opposition stand three "dissatisfied Jewish intellectuals. "


Robert Wilton, correspondent of the Times of London at St Petersburg , documents that the October Revolution of 1917 was a Jewish Revolution, led by "Pseudo Jews", i.e. Jews who had renounced religion, many of whom had come from Western Europe with Lenin, or from America with Trotsky:

The Last Days of the Romanovs by Robert Wilton, London, Thornton Butterworth Limited, 1920.

{p. 26} Nonentities, figureheads of the Sovnarkom, do not interest us. We are concerned with great, if maleficient, personages in

{p. 27} the Red world. Most of them are still unknown outside the ranks of professional revolutionaries. A goodly proportion of the hundred Jews who came out of Germany with Lenin, and the hundreds who came from Chicago , deserve to be included in this gallery, for they undoubtedly held Russia under their sway. To enumerate and describe them would require a small volume. I need sketch only those who act prominently in the drama of Ekaterinburg. The most important were: Sverdlov, Safarov, Voikov, and Goloshcheckin, and the murderer-in- chief, Yurovsky. Others will be introduced later on.

{p. 125} When the Jewish murderers and their accomplices, the German-Magyar 'Letts,' had taken wing before the advance of the Whites, these prisoners were sent to Perm for future disposal, while they themselves had hurried westward, having helped to accomplish the hellish design of the Jew fiend, Yankel Sverdlov - to exterminate 'all the Romanovs.' Others had already preceded them to Perm , and the design had been fully accomplished there. The murder of the Romanovs at Perm took place exactly twenty-four hours after the murder of the family at Ekaterinburg.

{p. 146} But why all these precautions? If the people are so anxious to try and punish their late ruler, why resort to all manner of subterfuges, both in committing the 'execution' and in acquainting the people with the death of their 'oppressor'?

The answer is a simple one: Sverdlov and his associates were not sure of the people. The reason of that is equally simple: they were not Russians; they were Jews. They

{p. 147} were 'internationalists, ' repudiating all nationality, yet disguised under Russian names. The Russians in their midst were dupes or dummies. Krassin might come to clear the ground, but Apfelbaum-Kamenev appeared for the serious work. What happened in London in 1920 is comparable in a modest way with the Red mechanism in Russia itself.

Taken according to numbers of population, the Jews represented one in ten; among the komissars that rule Bolshevik Russia they are nine in ten - if anything, the proportion of Jews is still higher.

These men feared the Russian people, they feared the Romanovs because they were Russians, they feared Nicholas Romanov because he had been a Russian Tsar, and when he refused to be seduced from his loyalty to his people and to the Allies they resolved that he should die - he and all the Romanovs. This resolve was carried out when the advance of anti-Bolshevik forces gave a reasonable hope of sophisticating the crime and avoiding a just punishment. And so definite was Jew-ruled Moscow on the necessity of the ex-Tsar's death that a whole month before the murder the report persisted that Nicholas II was dead.

{p. 148} The Germans knew what they were doing when they sent Lenin's pack of Jews into Russia . They chose them as agents of destruction. Why? Because the Jews were not Russians and to them the destruction of Russia was all in the way of business, revolutionary or financial. The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed with the stamp of alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov (who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews Goloschekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yukovsky, is the act not of the Russian people, but of this hostile invader.

{end} http://users. cyberone. wilton.html

Part of my argument concerns Jewish crypsis ... that is, operating under camouflage or anonymity.

An example of Jewish crypsis was the composition of Bill Clinton’s cabinet.

Madeline Allbright (Secretary of State, i.e. Foreign Minister), Robert Rubin (Treasurer) Mickey Kantor (Secretary for Trade, in charge of GATT and WTO) William Cohen (Defence) Sandy Berger (National Security Adviser)

Clinton ’s Cabinet was largely Jewish, yet this was never acknowledged.

The Israeli newspaper Maariv published an article called The Jews Who Run Clinton's Court, By Avinoam Bar-Yosef, on September 2, 1994: http://www.radioisl english/toread/ collect.htm

The Spanish Inquisition was introduced to combat the Jewish technique of wielding power as back-seat drivers.

Another example of Jewish crypsis was the Baruch Plan for World Government.

This was put to Stalin in 1946, by the US Government. It was drafted by two American Jews, David Lilienthal and Bernard Baruch (a Wall St banker): http://users. cyberone. baruch-plan. html

Its supporters were largely Jewish, anti-Stalinist communists like Robert Oppenheimer and Albert Einstein. These supporters put out a book called One World or None: http://users. cyberone. one-world- or-none.html

The public was not told that this was a substantially Jewish proposal. Yet this proposal was of the highest importance, and the public deserving of full information about it.

David Ben-Gurion claimed that “uniting the world”, which he advocated and predicted, was a particularly Jewish idea: http://users. cyberone. tmf.html

Ben Gurion explained in terms of Judaism's mission to unify the world. Note that, even though an atheist, Ben Gurion derived this vision from the Jewish Bible: http://users. cyberone. bengur-bible. html

Ben-Ami Shillony expounded likewise: http://users. cyberone. japan.html

That is, it arose out of Jewish philosophy; out of the Jewish religion.

Harry Waton, a Jewish Communist, expounded on the connection between the two, in his 1939 book A Program FOR THE JEWS: An Answer TO ALL ANTI-SEMITES: A PROGRAM FOR HUMANITY.

Communism, Rabbi Waton says, is Judaism's project for the world. All other religions are other-worldly; only Judaism lives for this world, and specifically for a political program which unifies and equalises mankind.

{p. 52} The Jews differ from all other races and peoples because of Judaism; Judaism differs from all other religions because of Jehovah; and Jehovah differs from all other gods. All other gods dwell in heaven. For this reason, all other religions are concerned about heaven, and they promise all reward in heaven after death. For this reason, all other religions negate the earth and the material world and are indifferent to the well-being and progress of mankind on this earth. But Jehovah comes down from heaven to dwell on this earth and to embody himself in mankind. For this reason, Judaism concerns itself only about this earth and promises all reward right here on this earth. The Kingdom of God is to be realized right here on this earth. The immortality which men are to enjoy, they will enjoy right here on this earth.

{p. 99} Since the Jews are the highest and most cultured people on earth, the Jews have a right to subordinate to themselves the rest of mankind and to be the

{p. 100} masters over the whole earth. ... The Jews will become the masters over the whole earth and they will subordinate to themselves all nations, not by material power, not by brute force, but by light, knowledge, understanding, humanity, peace, justice and progress. Judaism is communism, internationalism, the universal brotherhood of man, the emancipation of the working class and the human society. It is with these spiritual weapons that the Jews will conquer the world and the human race. The races and the nations will cheerfully submit to the spiritual power of Judaism, and all will become Jews.

{p. 102} The Aryans will enlarge and beautify the earth; but they will settle to enjoy the world which they created only in the tents of the Jews. These tents are communism, internationalism, the universal brotherhood of man, the emancipation of the working class and the human society - a society of free and morally autonomous rational human beings. ...

{p. 103} A reference to the Bible will show that the Jews were always referred to as a people, and not as a nation. And an understanding of the history and destiny of the Jews will reveal the fact that the Jews were not intended to be a nation. But what constitutes the Jews as a people? It is their identification with Jehovah and Judaism. Take away from the Jews Jehovah and Judaism, and they cease to be Jews.

{p. 113} But the Jews were chosen, not for their own sake, they were chosen to become the means through whom Jehovah will redeem all mankind. Salvation is of the Jews, but the Jews themselves will realize this salvation only through the salvation of the whole human race. It is therefore the historic function of the Jews to bring salvation to mankind.

{p. 133} And, while most Jews believe in the general idea of immortality, the Jews that have a deeper understanding of Judaism know that the only immortality there is for the Jew is the immortality in the Jewish people. Each Jew continues to live in the Jewish people, and he will continue to live so long as the Jewish people will live.

{p. 138} The communists are against religion, and they seek to destroy religion; yet, when we look deeper into the nature of communism, we see that it is essentially nothing else than a religion. That the communists seek to destroy all existing religions is not remarkable; all new religions had first to destroy the existing religions, to clear the terrain for its own existence. This was the case of Judaism, Christianity, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, and all other religions.

{p. 139} But men are not free to choose their ideas; rather ideas choose men. Hence, it is not men that struggle for and against ideas, but the ideas struggle against one another. Since religion is the most essential idea, it follows that the struggles of religious ideas against one another are the most vital struggles in human existence.

{p. 163} The proletariat is the lowest and most backward class in society. It is therefore the supreme duty of the Jews to identify themselves with the proletariat. All other classes will disappear, but the working class will endure forever, for all of mankind will become workers. For identifying themselves with the working class the Jews will incur the displeasure and hatred of the ruling classes, but the Jews must not fear the ruling classes: their rule will be only for a while. Let the Hitlers and the anti-Semites look down with contempt upon the working class, but the Jews must look upon the working class as upon their own brothers and equals. Let the Hitlers and the parasites look down with contempt upon the colored and inferior races, but the Jews must identify themselves with these races and help them rise ...

{p. 171} ... Christianity was a regression from Judaism. ... a Christianity which was nothing else than paganism ...

{p. 172} ... Christianity is only a preparation for Judaism.

{p. 174} The time will come when all Christians will become mature, they will all embrace Judaism, and they will all justify themselves by deeds. Then the Christians will become Jews.

full text: http://users. cyberone. watonpgm. zip

Stalin's wresting of power from the Jewish Bolsheviks is attested by Solzhenitsyn in his book The First Circle, through the character Adam Roitman:

"Perhaps his memory deceived him, but hadn't he been right in thinking that during the Revolution, and for a long time afterwards, Jews were regarded as more reliable than Russians? In those days, the authorities always probed more deeply into the antecedents of a Russian, demanding to know who his parents were and what the source of his income was prior to 1917. No such checks had been made on Jews; they had all been on the side of the Revolution which delivered them from pogroms and the Pale of settlement. "But now this. ... surreptitiously, hiding behind minor figures, Joseph Stalin was taking it upon himself to be the new scourge of the Israelites" (The First Circle, Fontana paperback, p. 511; see also pp. 510, 515-6, 547-8, 559).

Here is an email which contains an English rendition of part of Alexander Solzhenitzyn' s new book on the role of Jews in communism.

{start} Date: Sun, 27 Apr 2003 12:11:44 -0700 From: aelewis@provide. net

From: <lsn@overthrow. com> Subject: Excerpts From Solzhenitsyn' s New Book On The Jews : In English For The First Time ; Alexander Solzhenitsyn / LSN Staff Date: Wed, 23 Apr 2003 11:23:53 -0400

Excerpts From Solzhenitsyn' s New Book On The Jews

In English For The First Time

4/23/03 11:23:53 AM

Alexander Solzhenitsyn / LSN Staff

Book Excerpts -- [LSN:Hello all!

One of our Russian friends recently sent us the URL to Alexander Solzhenitzyn' s new book on the role of Jews in communism, available on the internet in Russian at http://sila. Altavista's Babelfish, we've translated some of it into English, and then cleaned up the English somewhat, so as to present to you the first English language excerpts from the book available anywhere (there are no plans to translate it into English any time in the near future).Here are some excerpts from Chapter 15 -- The Bolsheviks.This is our rough, and possibly in some places imperfect, translation. ]



Chapter 15 -- THE BOLSHEVIKS

This is not a new theme: the Jewish role in Bolshevism. On it, much has already been written. Those who try to prove that the revolution was non- Russian indicate the Jewish names and pseudonyms in an attempt to remove from the Russian people the blame of the revolution of 1917. But Jews, who began by similarly denying the role of Jews in positions Bolshevik authority, have now been forced to admit participation, but claim that those Jews were not Jews in spirit, but renegades.

Let us agree with this statement and admit we are unable to judge people's spirits. Yes, these were renegades.

However, by that logic, the leading Russian Bolsheviks were also not Russians in spirit, but were frequently both anti-Russian and anti-Orthodox, and in their minds Russian culture was refracted through the lenses of political doctrines and calculations.

But a question is raised: How much evidence must there be of the participation of random renegades before acknowledges a pattern that defies random distribution? What fraction of the Jewish nation is required? We know about the Russian renegades: the depressing number that joined the Bolsheviks -- an unpardonable number. But how widely and actively did Jews participate in strengthening Bolshevik authority?

And another question: what was the reaction of each group's people to its renegades. The reactions of people to renegades can be different -- they can curse them or praise them, ostracize them or join them. And the manifestations of this -- the reactions of the masses of the people, whether Russian, Jewish or Latvian -- have been given very little consideration by historians.

The question is one of whether the people renounced their renegades, and whether the renunciation that did occur reflected the sense of the people. Did a people choose to remember or not to remember its renegades? In answer to this question, there must not be doubt: The Jews choose to remember. Not just to remember the individual people, but to remember them as Jews, so that their names may never disappear.

There is perhaps no more clear example of renegade than Lenin: one cannot fail to recognize Lenin as Russian. To Lenin Russian antiquity was disgusting and loathsome; in all of Russian History he seems only to have mastered Chernyshevsky and Saltykov-Schedrin. Yes, he frolicked with the liberal views of Turgenev and Tolstoy. But in him there appeared no attachment even to the Volga , where he passed his youth. To the contrary, he pitilessly brought terrifying hunger there in 1921. Everything with him was thus -- everything Russian among which he grew generated inside him hatred. That Orthodox faith in which he could have grown, he strove instead to weaken and destroy. Even in youth he was a renegade. But nevertheless he was Russian, and we Russians must accept criticism for it. But if we speak of the ethnic origin of Lenin, we must not change our method of judgement, when we recognize that he was a cross-breed of the most different bloodlines: his grandfather according to the father, Nikolai Vasilyevich, was of the blood of a Kalmyk woman Anna Alekseyevna Smirnova; another grandfather Israel [baptised Aleksandr] Davidovich was a Jew; another grandmother, Anna Iogannovna (Ivanovna) Grosshopf,the daughter of a German and a Swede. But all of this cross-breeding does not give us the right to reject him as a Russian. We must accept him as a creation completely Russian since his national character -- that which infused his spirit -- was intertwined with the history of the Russian Empire. But to the creations of Russia , that country which erected us, and its culture, his was a spirit alienated and at times sharply anti-Russian, but nevertheless we can in no way renounce him.

But the Jewish renegades? As we saw, in 1917, the Jews had not all been drawn to Bolshevism. Instead, they had been drawn to a myriad of revolutionary movements. At the last conference of the RSDRP -- the RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC WORKER'S PARTY ( London 1907) -- the Mensheviks -- of the 302- 305 delegates the number of Jews exceeded 160, i.e., more than half. As a result of the April conference of 1917, among 9 members of the new Central Committee of the Bolsheviks we see G. Zinoviev, L Kamenev, and Sverdlov. In the summer of the congress of the RKPb (renamed from the RSDRP) to the TSCK there were 11 members, among them Zinovev, Sverdlov, Sokolniks, Trotsky, and Uritsky. Then, on 10 October 1917, in the apartment of Gimmer and Flakserman, where the decision was made about the Bolshevik Revolution, among the 12 participants were Trotsky, Zinovev, Sverdlov, Uritsky, Sokolniks [and one other Jewish name the translator won't give us properly]. And who was chosen first for the Politburo? Of its seven members: Trotsky, Zinoviev, [another Jewish name], Sokolniks. That is in no way a small proportion. There can be no doubt -- Jewish renegades were present in the Bolshevik leadership in great disproportion to their numbers in the population -- and they comprised too many of the Bolshevik commissars for a relationship to be denied.

It can be certain that the Jewish leadership of Bolshevism was not completely monolithic. Even the Jews in the Politburo did not act as a bloc. Some were against the revolution, believing that it was not the proper moment. Then, already, Trotsky was the autocratic genius of the October revolution; he did not exaggerate his role in his writings on the subject. Lenin hid himself in a cowardly manner and played no essential role until after the revolution had been complete.

Generally, Lenin was guided by a spirit of internationalism, and even in his dispute with the bund in 1903, he adhered to the view nationalism did not exist and must not exist, and that the question of nationalism divided revolutionary from reactionary socialism. (In harmony with this view Stalin declared that the Jews were a nation and thus prophesied their eventual assimilation. ) Accordingly, Lenin considered anti-Semitism to be a tactic of capitalism, and saw in it not an organic expression of the will of the people but a convenient method of counterrevolution. But Lenin also understood what a powerful mobilizing force the Jewish question was in the ideological fight. He also saw to it that the special bitterness of the Jews to the Tsar was prepared for us in the Revolution.

However, from the first days of the revolution Lenin found it necessary to consider how the Jewish question would eventually be addressed. Like much he did not foresee in state questions, he did not see how the formation of Jewish power within the Bolsheviks would lead the Jews, as a result of war scattered throughout Russia, to take control of the apparatus of the Russian state during the decisive months and years -- a process that began with the replacements that occurred after the Bolshevik mass strike against Russian clerks. That strike was organized by the Jewish settlers in the Russian frontier and border regions, who did not return to their relatives after the war.

But the liquidation of permanent residency in 1917 particularly resulted in the great dispersion of Jews from the urban centers inside Russia , no longer as refugees and settlers, but as migrants. Soviet information in 1920 states that to Samara alone ten thousands Jews has settled in recent years, in Irkutsk , the Jewish population grew to fifteen thousand. Large Jewish settlements were formed in central Russia and the Urals. This was performed in large part by Jewish social security agencies and philanthropic organizations.

A small pile of Bolsheviks having now come to power and taken authority, their control was still brittle: Whom could they trust in the government? Whom could they call to aid? The seeds of the answer lay in the creation in January 1918 of a special people's commissariat from the members of the Jewish commissariat, whose reason was expressed in Lenin's thought: The Bolshevik service in the revolution was possible because of the role of the large Jewish intelligentsia in several Russia cities. These Jews engaged in general sabotage, which was directed against Russians after the October Revolution and which has been extremely effective. Jewish elements, though certainly not the entirety of the Jewish people, saved the Bolshevik Revolution through these acts of sabotage. Lenin took this into consideration, and emphasized it in the press ... and he recognized that to master the state apparatus he could succeed only because of this reserve of literate and more or less intelligent, sober and new clerks.

Thus the Bolsheviks, from the first days of their authority, called upon the Jews to assume the bureaucratic work of the Soviet apparatus -- and many, many Jews answered that call. They, in fact, responded immediately. The sharp need of the Bolsheviks for bureaucrats to exercise their authority met great enthusiasm among young Jews, pell-mell with the Slav and international brethren. And this was in no way compulsory for these Jews, who were non- party members, and who had been previously completely non-revolutionary and apolitical. This phenomenon was not ideological but a phenomenon of mass calculation by the Jews. And the Jews in the previously forbidden and cherished rural provinces and their capitals gushed out of their ghettos to join the Bolsheviks, seeing in them the most decisive defenders of the revolution and the most reliable internationalists, and these Jews flooded and abounded in the lower layers of the party structure.

To every man who was not a member of the nobility, a priest or a Tsarist bureaucrat the promises of the new clan were extended. And to encourage Jewish participation, the Bolsheviks organized in St Petersburg the Jewish division of the nationalities commissariat. In 1918 it was converted into a separate comissariat of its own. And in March 1919, in the eighth congress of the RKPb, with the proclamation of the Communist Union of Soviet Russia, it was made into an organic and special part of the RKPb, in order to integrate it into the Communist Internationale, and it a special Jewish section was created in the Russian Telegraphic Agency. [LSN: Thus we see the communist origins of the modern Jewish Telegraphic Agency. ;-D]

The statements made by Shub that Jewish young people joined the communist party in response to anti-Semitic pogroms conducted in White-controlled areas in 1919 has no basis in reality. The mass inflow of Jews into the Soviet apparatus occurred in 1917 and 1918. There is no doubt that the pogroms of 1919 strengthened the allegiance of Jews to the communist party, but it in no way created it. ...

Rarely do authors deny the role of Jews in Bolshevism. While it is true that the appearance of Bolshevism was the result of the special features of Russian history the organization of Bolshevism was created through the activity of Jewish commissars. The dynamic role of Jews in Bolshevism was estimated by contemporary observers in America . The transfer of the Russian Revolution from the destructive phase into the building phase was seen as an expression of the ability of the Jews to build elaborate systems based on their dissatisfactions. And after the successes of October, how many Jews themselves spoke about their role in Bolshevism with their heads held high!

Let us recall that how, before the revolution, revolutionaries and radical- liberals were willing to oppose the restraints placed upon the Jews not out of love for the Jews, but for political purposes. So in the first months and years after the October Revolution the Bolsheviks made a great effort to hunt down Jews for use in the state and party apparati, not out of affinity for the Jewish people, but for the abilities they combined with their alienation and hatred of the Russian population. In this manner they also approached the Latvians, the Hungarians and the Chinese.

Though the mass of the Jewish population initially viewed the Bolsheviks with alarm, thought not hostility, after finding that the revolution granted them complete freedom, and that it welcomed a bloom of Jewish activity in the public, political and cultural spheres, the Jewish population threw themselves into Bolshevism; and Bolshevik authority particularly attracted those whose character held a surplus of cruelty.

The question then emerges of when Communist authority spread from Russia , and came to engulf world Judaism. The stormy participation of Jews in the Communist revolution drew cautious statements of concerns about world Jewry that were quieted, their evidence concealed, by communist and Jews worldwide, who attempted to silence it by denouncing it as extreme anti-Semitism.

After 70 or 80 years has passed, and under the pressure of many facts and discoveries, the view of Jewish involvement in the revolutionary years had opened slightly. And already many Jewish voices have been to discuss this publicly. For example, the Poet Naum Korzhavin has noted that along as it is "taboo" to speak of the participation of the Jews in Bolshevism, it will be impossible to properly discuss the revolutionary period. There are even times now when Jews are proud of their participation -- when Jews have said that they did participate in the revolution, and in disproportionately large numbers. M Argusky has noted that Jews involved in the revolution and the civil war was not limited to the revolutionary period but also continued in their considerable and widespread involvement in running the state apparatus. Israeli socialist S. Tsiryul'nikov has stated that from the beginning of the revolution Jews served as the basis of the new communist regime.

But most Jewish authors, today still deny the contribution of Jews to Bolshevism, sweeping the evidence aside with anger, or, more frequently, with reference to the pain such evidence causes them.

But despite their pain there is no doubt that these Jewish renegades for several years after the revolution dominated Bolshevism, headed the belligerent Red Army (Trotsky), the ALL-RUSSIAN CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTE (Sverdlov), ran both capitals (Zinoviev), the Komintern (Zinoviev), the Profintern / Red Trade Union International (Dridzo-Lozovskiy) and the Komsomol (Oscar Ryvkin, after it Lazarus Shatskin, the very same and in the chapter of the Communist international of young people).

In the first council of People's Commissars there was, true, only one Jew, but the influence of this one Jews, Trotsky, Lenin's second, exceeded that of all the rest. And from November 1917 through 1918 the real government was not the Council of Peoples' Commissars but the in the so-called Small Council of People's Commissars: Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Karelin, Prosh'yan. After October, of no less importance that the Council of People's Commissars, was the presidium of VTsIK, the ALL-RUSSIAN CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. Among its six chairmen: Sverdlov, [unintelligible Jewish name], Volodarsky, and Glass.

M. Agursky correctly notes that in the country, where one was not accustomed to seeing Jews, the ascension of the Jews to power was particularly striking: The President of the country, a Jew? The War Minister, a Jew? There was something to this, so radical that the population of Russia could not adjust to it -- not only because of their Judaism, but because of what they as Jews stood for.

{end of Solzhenitsyn email}

Benjamin Disraeli, writing in 1844, is referring below to the revolution of 1848, launched shortly after the appearance of The Communist Manifesto.

He says that this revolution, soon to break out, “is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews”.

Coningsby. A 'novel' written in 1844. 5th edition, published by Peter Davies, London , 1927, with an Introduction by Philip Guedalla.

{p. 264} 'You never observe a great intellectual movement in Europe in which the Jews do not greatly participate. The first Jesuits were Jews; that mysterious Russian diplomacy which so alarms western Europe is organised and principally carried on by Jews; that mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany, and which will be, in fact, a second and greater Reformation, and of which so little is as yet known in England, is entirely developing under the auspices of Jews, who almost monopolise the professorial chairs of Germany. ..


J. L. Talmon was Professor of Modern History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the author of The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy.

He wrote in his book Israel among the Nations (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1970):

{p. 2} Then there are those Jews who are unable to ignore the intimate relation between Jews and revolution, but wish they had never heard of it.

{p. 28} In his famous interview with the Tsarist Minister Witte, Herzl was faced with the question why the Jews who constituted only 3 per cent of the population of Russia supplied 50 per cent of its revolutionaries. ...

But absolute figures do not tell the whole story. The qualitative aspects were more significant. ...

{endquote} http://users. cyberone. talmon.html

The Jewish State, by Theodor Herzl

(Dover Publications, New York, 1988)

{p. 91} When we sink, we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of all revolutionary parties; and at the same time, when we rise, there rises also our terrible power of the purse.

{endquote} http://users. cyberone. herzl.html

Yuri Slezkine attested the initial Jewish dominance in the USSR , but the Stalinist overthrow of it, and the Jewish response by emigration, in his book The Jewish Century (Princeton University Press, Princeton , 2004):

{p. 169} For those who wished to fight, there as but one army to join. The Red Army was the only force that stood earnestly and consistently against the Jewish pogroms and the only one led by a Jew. Trotsky was not just a general or even a prophet: he was the living embodiment of redemptive violence, the sword of revolutionary justice, and at the same time Lev Dadidovich Bronstein, whose first school had been Schufer's heder in Gromoklei, Kherson province. The other Bolshevik leaders standing closest to Lenin during the civil war were G. E. Zinoviev (Ovsei-Gersh Aronovich Radomyslsky) , L. B. Kamenew (Rosenfeld), and Ya. M. Sverdlov {all Jewish}. ...

{p. 175} At the Bolshevik Central Committee meeting of October 23, 1917, which voted to launch an armed insurrection, 5 out of the 12 members present were Jews. Three out of seven Politbureau members charged with leading the October uprising were Jews (Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Grigory Sokolnikov [Girsh Brilliant} ). ... The first Bolshevik bosses of Moscow and Petrograd were Kamenev and Zinoviev. Zinoviev was also

{p. 176} the chairman of the Communist International. The first Bolshevik commandants of the Winter Palace and the Moscow Kremlin were Grigorii Isakovich Chudllovsk, and Emelian Yaroslavsky (Minei Israelevich Gubelman). Yaroslavsky was also the chairman of the League of the Militant Godless. The heads of the Soviet delegation at the Brest-Litovsk negotiations were Adolf Ioffe and Trotsky. Trotsky was the face of the Red Army.

{p. 297} All Stalinist purges were about creeping penetration by invisible aliens and here was a race that was both ubiquitous and camouflaged; an ethnic group that was so good at becoming invisible that it had become visible as an elite (perhaps the Soviet elite). Here was a nationality that did not possess its own territory (or rather, possessed one but refused to live there), a nationality that did not have its own language (or rather, had one but refused to speak it), a nationality that consisted almost entirely of intelligentsia (or rather,

{p. 298} refused to engage in proletarian pursuits); a nationality that used pseudonyms instead of names ...

{endquote} http://users. cyberone. slezkine. html

Below, Leonard Schapiro lists members of the Politburo, the inner group of the Central Committee, with authority to make policy. It was set up in 1919, and replaced by the Praesidium in 1952.

This list of names is a guide to who was running the USSR . Note the changes in the 1920s, as Stalin edged his opponents out, and in the 1950s, after the death of Stalin.

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Leonard Schapiro

1960 Eyre & Spottiswoode


{p. 606} APPENDIX III {CC = Central Committee (of CPSU); CCC probably = Central Control Commission)

Members and Candidate Members of the Politburo and Praesidium 1917-1958

1. Bureau for the political guidance of the insurrection. Elected at the C.C. meeting 10(23).10.17 - V. I. Lenin, G. E. Zinoviev, L. B. Kamenev, L. D. Trotsky, I. V. Stalin, G. Ia. Sokol'nikov, A. S. Bubnov.

2. Elected in March 1919 after the 8th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, N. N. Krestinskii; Candidates: Zinoviev, N. I. Bukharin.

{Kamenev & Trotsky were Jewish; Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry. That Krestinskii was Jewish too is stated at: http://pages. interlog. com/~girbe/ jewish_question.}

3. Elected 22 March 1921 after the 10th Congress - Members: Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Stalin, and Kamenev; Candidates: V. M. Molotov, M. I. Kalinin and Bukharin.

{3 of the 5 members of the Politburo were Jewish. Lenin identified with the Jewish part of his ancestry. Stalin was the only non-Jew.}

4. Elected 3 April 1922 after the 11th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, A. I. Rykov, M. M. Tomskii; Candidates: Bukharin, Molotov, V. V. Kuibyshev, Kalinin.

5. Elected 26 April 1923 after the 12th Congress - Members: Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Rykov, Tomskii; Candidates: Bukharin, Molotov, Kuibyshev .

6. Elected 2 June 1924 after the 13th Congress - {Lenin had died} Members: Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Rykov, Tomskii, Bukharin (Lenin died 24 January 1924); Candidates: Molotov, Kuibyshev , Kalinin , F. E. Dzerzhinskii.

7. Elected 1 January 1926 after the 14th Congress - Members: Bukharin, K. E. Voroshilov, Zinoviev, Kalinin, Molotov, Rykov, Stalin, Tomskii, Trotsky; Candidates: Ia. E. Rudzutak , Dzerzhinskii, G. I. Petrovskii, N. A. Uglanov, Kamenev.

{p. 607} 8. C.C. plenary session 14-23 July 1926 - Zinoviev expelled and replaced by Rudzutak

Elected Candidates: Petrovskii, Uglanov, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, A. A. Andreev, S. M. Kirov, A. I. Mikoyan, L. M. Kaganovich, Kamenev (Dzerzhinskii died 20 July 1926).

9. C.C. plenary session 23 October 1926 - Trotsky and Kamenev expelled.

10. C.C. plenary session 3 November 1926 - Ordzhonikidze replaced by V. Ia. Chubar' ( Ordzhonikidze elected chairman of the C.C.C.).

11. Elected 19 December 1927 after the 15th Congress - Members: Bukharin, Voroshilov, Kalinin , Kuibyshev , Molotov, Rykov, Rudzutak, Stalin, Tomskii; Candidates: Petrovskii, Uglanov, Andreev, Kirov, Mikoyan, Kaganovich, Chubar', S. V. Kossior.

12. C.C. plenary session 29 April 1929 - Uglanov replaced by K. Ia. Bauman.

13. C.C. plenary session 10-17 November 1929 - Bukharin expelled.

14. Elected 13 July 1930 after the 16th Congress - Members: Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Kalinin , Kirov , Kossior, Kuibyshev , Molotov, Rykov, Rudzutak, Stalin; Candidates: Mikoyan, Chubar', Petrovskii, Andreev, S. I. Syrtsov.

15. C.C. and C.C.C. decision 1 December 1930 - Syrtsov expelled from the C.C.

16. C.C. and C.C.C. joint plenary session 17-21 December 1930 - Rykov expelled; Andreev relieved; Ordzhonikidze elected member (Andreev elected Chairman of the C.C.C.).

17. C.C. plenary session 4 February 1932 - Rudzutak relieved; Andreev elected member (Rudzutak elected Chairman of the C.C.C.).

18. Elected 10 February 1934 after the 17th Congress - Members: Stalin, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov, Kalinin , Ordzhonikidze , Kuibyshev , Kirov , Andreev, Kossior; Candidates: Mikoyan, Chubar', Petrovskii, P. P. Postyshev, Rudzutak.

19. C.C. plenary session 1 February 1935 - Elected Members: Mikoyan, Chubar'; Candidates: A. A. Zhdanov, R. I. Eikhe (Kirov assassinated 1 December 1934, Kuibyshev died 25 January 1935).

{p. 608} 20. October 1937 - N. I. Ezhov elected candidate. Ordzhonikidze committed suicide 18 February 1937.

21. C.C. plenary session in January 1938 - Postyshev expelled and replaced by N. S. Khrushchev.

22. Purged during 1938: Kossior, Chubar', Rudzutak, Eikhe, Ezhov. Petrovskii removed early in 1939.

23. Elected 22 March 1939 after the 18th Congress - Members: Zhdanov , Khrushchev; Candidates: L. P. Beria, N. M. Shvernik.

24. C.C. plenary session 21 February 1941 after the 18th Conference - Elected Candidates: N. A. Voznesenskii, G. M. Malenkov, A. S. Shcherbakov.

25. C.C. plenary session in March 1946 - Elected Members: Beria, Malenkov; Candidates: N. A. Bulganin, A. N. Kosygin (Shcherbakov died 10 May 1945).

26. Voznesenskii became member 28 February 1947 (Kalinin died 3 June 1946).

27. In February 1948 - Elected Members: Bulganin, Kosygin.

28. Zhdanov died 31 August 1948; Voznesenskii arrested in March 1949.

29. Praesidium elected 16 October 1952 after the l9th Congress - Members: V. M. Andrianov, A. B. Aristov, Beria, Bulganin, Voroshilov, S. D. Ignat'ev, Kaganovich, D. S. Korotchenko, V. V. Kuznetsov, O. V. Kuusinen, Malenkov, V. A. Malyshev, L. G. Mel'nikov, Mikoyan, N. A. Mikhailov, Molotov, M. G. Pervukhin, P. K. Ponomarenko, M. Z. Saburov, Stalin, M.A. Suslov, Khrushchev, D. I. Chesnokov, Shvernik, M. F. Shkiriatov; Candidates: L. I. Brezhnev, A. Ia. Vyshinskii, A. G. Zverev, N. G. Ignatov, I. G. Kabanov, N. S. Patolichev, N. M. Pegov, A. M. Puzanov, I. F. Tevosian, P. F. Iudin.

30. Confirmed 6 March 1953 after Stalin's death - Members: Malenkov, Beria, Molotov, Voroshilov, Khrushchev, Bulganin, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Saburov, Pervukhin; Candidates: Shvernik, Ponomarenko, Mel'nikov, M. D. Bagirov.

31. C.C. plenary session in May or June 1953 - Mel'nikov replaced by A. I. Kirichenko.

32. C.C. plenary session in July 1953 - Beria expelled from the party.

{p. 609} 33. Bagirov arrested during 1953 (on July 7).

34. C.C. plenary session in July 1955 - Elected Members: Kirichenko, Suslov.

35. Elected 27 February 1956 after the 20th Congress - Members: Bulganin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Kirichenko, Malenkov, Mikoyan, Molotov, Pervukhin, Saburov, Suslov, Khrushchev; Candidates: G. E. Zhukov, Brezhnev, N. A. Mukhitdinov, D. T. Shepilov, E. A. Furtseva, Shvernik.

36. C.C. plenary session 13-14 February 1957 - Elected Candidate: F. R. Kozlov.

37. C.C. plenary session 22-27 June 1957 - Malenkov, Kaganovich, Molotov and Shepilov expelled from the C.C.

Elected Members: Aristov, N. I. Beliaev, Brezhnev, Bulganin, Voroshilov, Zhukov, Ignatov, Kirichenko, Kozlov, Kuusinen, Mikoyan, Suslov, Khrushchev, Shvernik; Candidates: Mukhitdinov, P. N. Pospelov, Korotchenko, Ia. E. Kalnberzin, A. P. Kirilenko, Kosygin, K. T. Mazurov, V. P. Mzhavanadze.

38. C.C. plenary session 3 November 1957 - Zhukov expelled from the C.C. Replaced by Mukhitdinov on 19 December 1957.

39. C.C. plenary session 17-18 June 1958 - Elected Candidates.: N. V. Podgornyi, D. S. Polianskii.

40. C.C. plenary session early September 1958 - Bulganin expelled from C.C.



 -- Peter Myers, 381 Goodwood Rd , Childers 4660, Australia ph +61 7 41262296 http://users. cyberone. Mirror: http://mailstar. net/index. html

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